ISS 2500 Ionic Soil Stabiliser
AN INTRODUCTION TO ISS 2500® AND ELECTROCHEMICAL STABILISATION®
Introduction to ISS 2500 Ionic Soil Stabiliser
This introduction is not intended as a detailed explanation but merely serves to give a fundamental understanding of ISS and the effect it has on a large number of soil types.
ISS 2500 is an electrochemical clay soil stabiliser suitable for improving marginal or substandard materials or soils for use in the construction of roads. ISS is suitable for use in both the construction of sealed pavement structures or for improvement in the performance of un-surfaced roadways. The addition of ISS to a suitable material improves compacted densities and bearing capacities and enables the constructed layer to maintain these increased densities under wet conditions.
On unsurfaced roadways these improved densities and consistent year round performance result in a reduction of material loss from the road surface retarding the formation of associated defects, potholes, corrugations etc. Overall required maintenance is also reduced while treatment will not affect normal gravel road maintenance procedures.
The use of ISS requires no specialised machinery and is supplied in concentrated liquid form using standard water bowser with spray bar to apply diluted solutions to the area under constructiuon.
- Soil stabilisation can be divided into four main classifications:
- Physiomechanical : Compaction
- Granulometric : Mixture of soils
- Physiochemical : Cement, lime, asphalt
- Electrochemical : ISS 2500® Ionic Soil Stabilizer®
Action of ISS on soil particles
The fine particles of clays and silts, due to their mineralogical composition, have an exess of negative ions (anions) and therefore attract positive ions (cations) of water, making this water adhere to form pellicular water. This clay is unsuitable for construction as the absorbed water acts as a lubricant on the soil particles thus preventing compaction of the soil.
ISS, due to its chemical composition, has an enormous potential ionic exchange capacity. When small quantities of ISS are added to the water, they activate the ions H+ and (OH-), ionising the water which then vigorously exchanges its electrical charges with the soil particles forcing the pellicular water to break its electrochemical bond with the soil particles to become free water which can then drain from the soil through gravity or evaporation.
This electrochemical reaction of ionic exchange is permanent and irreversible. Once the pellicular water separates from the fines in an irreversible electrochemical process and drains as free water, the soil particles settle and align themselves in such a way that they attract each other. A higher densification of the soil mass is achieved eliminating all the voids.
ISS 2500 Applications
- Gravel or dirt roads
- Surfaced roads
- Low cost urban and rural roads
- Mine haulage and open pit roads
- Bus and access routes
- Parking areas and loading yards
- Forestry haul roads
Advantages of using ISS 2500
- Improved road standards – ISS reduces the normal defects such as rutting, potholes, mud, dust.
- Cost-effectiveness – requires the minimum construction and road preparation efforts to create a positive life cycle/cost ratio
- Easy application – spray with standard spray equipment, without the necessity of specialised Equipment
- Easy and affordable maintenance – normal maintenance to the surface can be achieved with the minimum expertise and standard equipment. No rejuvenationneeded.
- No curing period – roads can be opened to traffic immediately
Environmental Impact of using ISS 2500
ISS 2500 is environmentally friendly and has no long term adverse impact on the environment and is safe to handle. It is non-toxic and non-hazardous. Full test reports available on request.
ISS works with most soil types encountered in road construction, A-2-4, A-2-6, A4, A5, A-6 and A-7. In addition, the soil should have a PI with a minimum of 10% of soil particles passing through the 0.075mm sieve.